Chloroquine has been extensively used in mass drug administrations, which may have contributed to the emergence and spread of resistance. It is recommended to check if chloroquine is still effective in the region prior to using it. Chloroquine phosphate freshwater Chloroquine and proguanil in pregnancy Whitepill with plaquenil Hydroxychloroquine generic brands Autophagy is involved in the pathophysiology of numerous diseases and its modulation is beneficial for the outcome of numerous specific diseases. Several lysosomal inhibitors such as bafilomycin A1 BafA1, protease inhibitors and chloroquine CQ, have been used interchangeably to block autophagy in in vitro experiments assuming that they all primarily block lysosomal degradation. Chloroquine's potential chemosensitizing and radiosensitizing activities in cancer may be related to its inhibition of autophagy, a cellular mechanism involving lysosomal degradation that minimizes the production of reactive oxygen species ROS related to tumor reoxygenation and tumor exposure to chemotherapeutic agents and radiation. It has also been demonstrated that chloroquine sensitizes breast cancer cells to chemotherapy independent of autophagy inhibition, and the potential side effects of chloroquine therapy have also been cautiously discussed. This indicates that a more detailed understanding of chloroquine's anticancer mechanism is required in order to further develop this compound into an effective anticancer agent. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend against treatment of malaria with chloroquine alone due to more effective combinations. In areas where resistance is present, other antimalarials, such as mefloquine or atovaquone, may be used instead. Chloroquine mechanism of action autophagy Chloroquine - Wikipedia, Chloroquine C18H26ClN3 - PubChem Chloroquine choleraBest malaria medication for prevention of chloroquine-resistant malariaRa plaquenilPlaquenil maculopathy risk MHY1485 has the ability to penetrate the cell. It prevents the ultraviolet-induced oxidative stress in keratinocytes and fibroblasts. MHY1485 is mTOR activator that potently inhibits autophagy by suppression of fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes. Autophagy Inhibitors - Autophagy Sigma-Aldrich. Chloroquine Is a Zinc Ionophore - PubMed Central PMC. Chloroquine Modes of action of an undervalued drug.. This finding, obtained without making any assumption on the nature of PfCRT, implies that hypothesis H2 is plausible, regardless of the chloroquine species involved in the chloroquineHM binding and of the mechanism of action of the mutated PfCRT. Consequently, none of the 20 cells C 1–5,1–4 can be shaded at this stage. Jan 27, 2010 Chloroquine CQ, an antimalarial lysosomotropic agent, has been identified as a potential adjuvant in the treatment regimen of GBMs. However, the mechanism of CQ-induced tumor cell death is poorly defined. We and others have shown that CQ-mediated cell death may be p53-dependent and at least in part due to the intrinsic apoptotic death pathway. In parallel with these findings, another study demonstrated that autophagy is a key mechanism for anti-leukemic effects of ATO in AML cell lines and leukemic progenitors from AML patients, and this induction of autophagy flux is associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase ERK-dependent autophagic cell death.